Billions of rupees are pumped into welfare programmes every year by the federal and state governments. Yet evidence suggests that public services in India are inadequate and the lack of accountability is often a binding constraint. State agencies seem to lack both- the capacity (technical and administrative) and ability (political and institutional) to deliver public goods. A big part of Accountability Initiative’s work is to uncover state capacity gaps by understanding the implementation of welfare programmes. We build knowledge of funding patterns: budgetary allocations, releases and public expenditure on critical schemes by the Union government. Through specific research interventions, we unravel the often complicated bureaucratic structures that are operationally responsible for them. By identifying the bottlenecks prevalent at the last mile of service delivery, we experience firsthand what very few research organisations do- how frontline government staff are responding to their roles and service delivery towards identified beneficiaries. Now, you too can access unique and valuable knowledge through our publications and commentary below.